Introduction to colonoscopy Colonoscopy is a direct observation of the entire inner wall of the large intestine through a colonoscope. The doctor will insert a long (about 1.4 cm in diameter) fiber optic tube with a micro lens at the end into the tester's anus, into the rectum, through the sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon and up to the cecum. If a polyp is found, auxiliary instruments can be used immediately to remove the polyp during examination and conduct pathological examination. It takes about ten years for polyps to progress into colorectal cancer. As long as the polyps are removed within the "golden decade", it can be prevented from turning into cancer. Who needs to undergo colonoscopy? 1. Unexplained lower gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent blood or mucus in the stool 2. Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation, persistent diarrhea, and unclear defecation 3. Abdominal pain or lump in abdomen 4. People who are over 50 years old or have suffered from intestinal polyps or have direct relatives who have suffered from intestinal cancer should prevent intestinal cancer. Preparation before colonoscopy 1. Three days before the examination, only eat low-resistance foods and avoid high-fiber foods such as beans, vegetables, fruits, etc. 2. The day before the examination, you need to take laxatives to completely clean the intestines to avoid feces from blocking the observation of the large intestine. Only liquid foods such as broth, gruel, etc. are allowed. 3. If you suffer from diabetes, high blood pressure, drug allergies, etc., you should inquire with your doctor about medication arrangements before the examination. The doctor may advise the examiner to stop taking certain medications before the examination. After the doctor explains the examination process, you need to sign an examination consent form. 4. If you have a pacemaker, your doctor should be notified. 5. Before the examination, remove glasses, dentures, jewelry and any metal objects. 6. It is recommended to arrange for a person to accompany you to leave, as you may feel dizzy after being injected with sedatives. Colonoscopy process 1. If you choose sedation injection, the medical staff will inject the sedative prescribed by the doctor to make the examiner sleep and reduce discomfort. Common medications include Midazolam and Pethidine, among others. 2. If you choose Monitored Anesthetic Care (MAC), the anesthesiologist will administer anesthetics through intravenous injection. Common drugs include Propofol and Fentanyl. 3. The examiner should lie on his left side with his knees bent so that the colonoscope can enter the intestine smoothly. During the examination, advanced equipment will be used to monitor blood pressure, heartbeat and blood oxygen content. 4. During the examination, air needs to be injected into the intestines. The intestines are distended for examination. The examiner may feel discomfort after the examination, such as a swollen feeling like "gas". In order to relieve and reduce swelling, the center will inject carbon dioxide that is easier for the body to absorb so that it will not stay in the abdomen and relieve abdominal distension. Precautions after colonoscopy 1. After the examination, the examiner will rest in bed for several hours in the resuscitation area until he is fully awake before he can get up and move around. During this period, medical staff will closely monitor the examiner's vital signs. 2. After receiving sedation injection, the examiner will forget part of the examination and feel dizzy. After the inspection, do not drive a vehicle, operate machinery, sign important documents, or make important decisions. It is best for the inspector to undergo the inspection accompanied by family members for safety reasons. 3. Under normal circumstances, the patient can resume normal eating after he is fully awake. Since gas was injected to distend the intestines during the examination, there will be slight abdominal distension and frequent farting after the examination, but this will gradually disappear.